The Nations of the World
The Nations of the World differ from one another in their
writing, their language, their land and their dress – to Esther 1:22
(according to the p’shat).
The civilized nations will come to hear the way of HaShem
according to the Torah ”which they shall teach you – to the
house of the L-rd of Yaakov” – to Isaiah 2:3
Rome is Edom – to Esther 1:22 (according to the p’shat). See R.
Yitzhak Abarbanel to Isaiah 34; Malbim to the beginning of the
book of Amos.
There are two kinds of ”enemies of Israel”: qamav,
those who rise up to distress Israel (physically), and mesaneav,
those who cause ill feeling between Israel and their Heavenly
Father and who cause them to sin (with their rotten culture), and
these last are considered primary sources of the impurities –
Adderet Eliyahu, Deuteronomy 33:11, II .
”The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not rejoice when He
punishes the wicked, but with regard to what they did to His
servants, the servants of G-d, HaShem will be comforted when He
will punish the Nations and take His vengeance upon them” –
Adderet Eliyahu, Deuteronomy 32:36.
The retribution that the Holy One, Blessed be He, shall bring
upon the Nations will take place ”when their leg falters”,
their ”leg” being the privilege stemming from the
respect Eisav showed his father Yitzhak (Zohar I, 146b), and then
HaShem will repay them for all the evil they have perpetrated –
this being the period known as `Iqba diM’shikha’ (footsteps of
the Messiah), since this is the end of the leg – Adderet Eliyahu,
Links to some of the other articles on this web site that portray the Gaon’s views:
* Monotheism Vs. The Outlook That Everything is G-d, by Mr. S. M. Scheinman which provides some background to the Gaon’s monotheistic beliefs.
* Divine Assistance