Is the Woman Who Provides the Genes the Mother or is it the Surrogate?
The following audio is what Rabbi Azarya Berzon has to say about the subject.
Obviously not intending to issue a Psak Halacha but from my perspective as a simple Jew, I, like Rabbi Berzon also lean in the direction that the Genetic Mother is the mother.
My reasoning is that a 9 month pregnancy is classified as a curse as a result of the sin in the Garden of Eden. Before the sin our sages teach us Chava (Eve) had 2 children on the same day she had relations with Adam (Rashi to Gen. 5:1 based on Midrash B.R. 24:7 and Sanhedrin 38b). She is nevertheless defined as the mother. This leads me in the direction to say that the genetics is the significant factor and the carrying of the baby is more like a natural incubator.
Artificial wombs that are being developed by modern technology, see for example, https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/artificial-womb-keeps-premature-lambs-alive-weeks-humans-next also lead me in the direction of downgrading the role of carrying the baby as the significant role. If one day a child is born through this technology is anyone really going to contend that the plastic bag that held the child is the mother?
Those who are sharp debaters could find several ways to show what I am saying is not absolute proof, so I am being very careful by just saying I lean in the direction that the Genetic Mother is the real mother. Not that I am absolutely sure.
Coming to a correct understanding of who is the mother, will in some cases determine if someone who is born is Jewish or Gentile. It also has impact on who you marry. It also has impact on who you have to honor as your mother. I could add to this list but this is sufficient.
In my article The Creation of Adam from Dust and the Theory of Evolution I go into depth explaining how the miraculous events of the 6th Day of Creation were meant to be omens for the future.
If one believes in the theory of evolution I show in the article a way where the theory could be at peace with the Biblical text. In any case, although I have shown a tolerant view towards evolution, I personally have not seen sufficient proof to force me to believe that this was the method G-d used to explain the scientific data.
by Shlomo Moshe Scheinman